ingenieria

Entrada Blog de Ingenieria-09

INTRODUCTION

With this new page of the INGENIERIA BLOG we start to introduce the Cleanliness Q-Round Checklist Evaluation with the (example) Q-Round number 002 performed on Feb-2018 at Job Site of one Ethylene Glycol Project Plant.

The target of this Q-Round 002 was to check the Points of Inspection (where they apply) described on the Evaluation List, visiting the Subcontractor Workshop and its close lay-down area & Piping Spools storeing condition.

Also, aspects of marking the places inside workshop buildings and places on open-areas for sand blasting & Painting purposes. General aspects about Housekeeping and Cleanliness, was also an important point to check.

For this Q-Round 002, EPC Cleanliness Q-Manager issued invitations to every involved person for this PFP programme that form the Cleanliness Q-Round Team:

*Client People: PFP Core Team Coordinator & Cleanliness Q-Manager, Operator Manager

*EPC People: PFP Cleanlines Q-Manager, QA/QC Manager, HSE Manager, Storage Engineer

Subcontractor People: PFP CLeanliness Mananager, Storage Manager, Field Engineer

There are many Cleanlines Q-Round Checklist Evaluation regarding with Static & Rotating Equipments, API Storage Tanks, Job site underground and above ground piping erection,…etc, that we shall performance step by step in future.

Also, Q-Round Checklist Evaluation are available for other PFP Areas (Civil, Mechanical, Electrical, Tighten, Testing,..etc.)

To see this first EXAMPLE about this Q-Round Checklist Evaluation 001 CLICK on below addressing:

RINCON DE CIENCIA Y TECNOLOGIA

WHERE IS THE MASS INSIDE OF A BLACK HOLE ?

SOURCE: Francis R. Villatoro (colaborador en Mapping Ignorance)-Mars 25 2019

Black holes are vacuum solutions of the Einstein equation. Hence, the energy-momentum tensor for a black hole is null at every point of space. The only place where its mass can be located is where there is no space, i.e., at the singularity. Hence, for a Schwarzschild black hole, the mass is located at the origin in spherical coordinates, the centre of its circular event horizon. However, either for a charged, Newman black hole, or a rotating, Kerr black hole, such a definition results in some (apparent) paradoxes.

Source: Pixabay

Mass is a parameter that characterizes a static, uncharged black hole. In the theory of general relativity there is no unique definition of this parameter (ADM mass, Bondi mass, Komar mass, etc.); in contrast to the theory of special relativity, where the mass is uniquely defined (based in either the equation E = m c², or in the non-relativistic limit) as the norm of the energy-momentum four-vector.

For mathematicians, since electromagnetism is a linear theory, but general relativity is a strongly non-linear one, the use of generalized functions is a must.

An electrically charged black hole is the vacuum solution of Einstein–Maxwell equations described by the Reissner–Nordström spacetime. For M² < Q² it is an unphysical, naked singularity; for M² ≥ Q² it has a point singularity where the mass (M) and the charge (Q) are located.

In fact, the real world is quantum mechanical. In the vicinity of classical singularities, quantum effects are expected to become strong. Without a quantum theory of the gravitational field we can only resort to conjectures based on semiclassical analysis, like that of Belinski, Khalatnikov and Lifshitz (BKL).

In summary, we don’t know where the mass is located inside a black hole. We need a quantum theory of gravitation in order to solve this seemingly simple question. Unfortunately, current candidates to such a theory, like string theory and loop quantum gravity do not offer a clear answer to this question.

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